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注意力缺陷多动症

注意力缺陷多动症 Parenting Tips

您的孩子是否患有注意缺陷多动障碍? Learn what you can do to manage their behavior 和 deal with common 注意力缺陷多动症 challenges.

Mother 和 son drawing together

How to help your child with 注意力缺陷多动症

与患有注意力缺陷多动障碍(注意力缺陷多动症或ADD)的儿童或青少年生活在一起是令人沮丧的, 即使是压倒性的. 但是作为父母,你可以帮助你的孩子克服日常的挑战, channel their energy into positive arenas, 和 bring greater calm to your family. 你越早、越坚持地解决孩子的问题, the greater chance they have for success in life.

儿童多动症 generally have deficits in executive function: the ability to think 和 plan ahead, organize, control impulses, 和 complete tasks. That means you need to take over as the executive, providing extra guidance while your child gradually acquires executive skills of their own.

尽管注意力缺陷多动症的症状非常令人恼火, 重要的是要记住,被忽视的孩子, 烦人的, or embarrassing you is 不 acting willfully. Kids with 注意力缺陷多动症 want to sit quietly; they want to make their rooms tidy 和 organized; they want to do everything their parent says to do—but they don’t know how to make these things happen.

If you keep in mind that having 注意力缺陷多动症 is just as frustrating for your child, it will be a lot easier to respond in positive, 支持的方式. 耐心, 同情, 和 plenty of support, 你可以控制儿童多动症,同时享受稳定的生活, 幸福的家庭.

注意力缺陷多动症 和 your family

在你成功地抚养一个患有多动症的孩子之前, it’s essential to underst和 the impact of your child’s symptoms on the family as a whole. 儿童多动症 exhibit a slew of behaviors that can disrupt family life. 他们经常不“听”父母的指示,所以他们不服从. They’re disorganized 和 easily distracted, keeping other family members waiting. Or they start projects 和 forget to finish them—let alone clean up after them. 有冲动问题的孩子经常打断谈话, dem和 attention at inappropriate times, 和 speak before they think, saying tactless or embarrassing things. 通常很难让他们上床睡觉. Hyperactive children may tear around the house or even put themselves in physical danger.

Because of these behaviors, siblings of children with 注意力缺陷多动症 face a number of challenges. 他们的需求得到的关注往往比患有多动症的孩子少. They may be rebuked more sharply when they err, 他们的成功可能不那么出名,或者被认为是理所当然的. 如果患有多动症的兄弟姐妹在他们的监督下行为不端,他们可能会被当作父母的助手. 作为一个结果, 兄弟姐妹可能会发现他们对患有多动症的兄弟姐妹的爱夹杂着嫉妒和怨恨.

The dem和s of monitoring a child with 注意力缺陷多动症 can be physically 和 mentally exhausting. 你的孩子不能“倾听”会导致挫折,而这种挫折会导致愤怒——随之而来的是对你的孩子生气的内疚. 孩子的行为会让你感到焦虑和压力. If there’s a basic difference between your personality 和 that of your child with 注意力缺陷多动症, 他们的行为尤其难以接受.

为了迎接抚养一个患有多动症的孩子的挑战, you must to be able to master a combination of 同情一致性. 对于正在学习管理注意力缺陷多动症的孩子或青少年来说,生活在一个既提供爱又提供结构的家庭是最好的事情.

多动症父母的建议1:保持积极健康的心态

As a parent, you set the stage for your child’s emotional 和 physical health. 你可以控制许多因素,这些因素可以积极地影响你孩子的障碍症状.

Maintain a positive attitude. 帮助你的孩子应对注意力缺陷多动症挑战的最佳资产是你积极的态度和常识. When you are calm 和 focused, 你更有可能与你的孩子交流, helping him or her to be calm 和 focused as well.

Keep things in perspective. 记住,你孩子的行为与一种障碍有关. Most of the time it is 不 intentional. Hold on to your sense of humor. What’s embarrassing today may be a funny family story ten years from now.

不要为小事烦心,愿意做出一些妥协. 当你的孩子已经完成了另外两件杂务加上当天的家庭作业时,一件杂务没做完也没什么大不了的. If you are a perfectionist, 你不仅会不断地感到不满,而且还会对你患有注意力缺陷多动症的孩子产生不可能的期望.

Believe in your child. 思考或写下所有积极的事情, 有价值的, 和 unique about your child. 相信你的孩子能够学习、改变、成熟和成功. Reaffirm this trust on a daily basis as you brush your teeth or make your coffee.

自我保健

作为孩子的榜样和最重要的力量来源, it is vital that you live a healthy life. 如果你过度劳累或仅仅是失去了耐心, 你可能会忽视你为患有多动症的孩子精心建立的结构和支持.

寻求支持. 在抚养患有多动症的孩子时,最重要的事情之一是你不必独自承担. Talk to your child’s doctors, therapists, 和 老师. 加入一个有组织的儿童多动症家长支持小组. 这些组织提供了一个提供和接受建议的论坛, 并提供一个安全的地方来发泄情感和分享经验.

休息. 朋友和家人可以主动帮忙照看孩子, but you may feel guilty about leaving your child, or leaving the volunteer with a child with 注意力缺陷多动症. Next time, accept their offer 和 discuss honestly how best to h和le your child.

Take care of yourself. 正确的饮食, 锻炼,并想办法 减轻压力, whether it means taking a nightly bath or practicing morning meditation. If you do get sick, acknowledge it 和 get help.

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Tip 2: Establish structure 和 stick to it

当任务以可预测的模式和地点发生时,患有注意力缺陷多动症的儿童更有可能成功地完成任务. 你的工作是建立和维持你的家庭结构, so that your child knows what to expect 和 what they are expected to do.

帮助患有多动症的孩子保持注意力集中和有条理的小贴士:

遵循一个例程. 重要的是要为所有的事情设定一个时间和地点,以帮助患有多动症的孩子理解和满足他们的期望. Establish simple 和 predictable rituals for meals, homework, play, 和 bed. Have your child lay out clothes for the next morning before going to bed, 和 make sure whatever he or she needs to take to school is in a special place, 准备好抓住.

Use clocks 和 timers. Consider placing clocks throughout the house, with a big one in your child’s bedroom. 为孩子需要做的事情留出足够的时间,比如家庭作业或早上的准备. Use a timer for homework or transitional times, 比如在结束游戏和准备睡觉之间.

Simplify your child’s schedule. It is good to avoid idle time, 但如果有很多课外活动,患有多动症的孩子可能会变得更加心烦意乱,变得“紧张”. 你可能需要根据孩子个人的能力和对特定活动的要求来调整孩子的课后承诺.

Create a quiet place. 确保你的孩子有一个安静的,属于他们自己的私人空间. A porch or a bedroom work well, as long as it’s the same place as the child goes for a time-out.

Do your best to be neat 和 organized. Set up your home in an organized way. 确保你的孩子知道每样东西都有它的位置. 尽可能以身作则,保持整洁和有组织.

Avoid problems by keeping kids with 注意力缺陷多动症 busy!

For kids with 注意力缺陷多动症, idle time may exacerbate their symptoms 和 create chaos in your home. 重要的是要让患有多动症的孩子忙碌起来,而不是堆积太多的事情,让孩子不知所措.

为你的孩子报名参加体育、艺术课或音乐课. 在家里,组织一些简单的活动来充实孩子的时间. 这些任务可以是帮你做饭,和兄弟姐妹玩棋盘游戏,或者画画. Try 不 to over-rely on the television or computer/video games as time-fillers. 不幸的是, 电视和电子游戏在本质上越来越暴力,可能只会增加你的孩子的多动症症状.

Tip 3: Encourage movement 和 sleep

儿童多动症 often have energy to burn. 有组织的运动和其他体育活动可以帮助他们以健康的方式释放能量,并把注意力集中在特定的动作和技能上. The benefits of physical activity are endless: it improves concentration, decreases depression 和 anxiety, 和 promotes brain growth. 最重要的是对于有注意力缺陷的儿童, 然而, is the fact that 锻炼 leads to better sleep, 这反过来也能减轻多动症的症状.

找一项你的孩子会喜欢并且适合他们的强项的运动. 例如, 像垒球这样需要大量“休息时间”的运动并不适合有注意力问题的孩子. 像篮球和曲棍球这样需要不断运动的个人或团队运动是更好的选择. 患有多动症的儿童也可以从武术(如跆拳道)或瑜伽的训练中受益, 哪些能在锻炼身体的同时增强精神控制.

“绿色时间”对患有注意力缺陷障碍的孩子的好处

Research shows that children with 注意力缺陷多动症 benefit from spending time in nature. 当孩子们在满是草地和树木的公园里玩耍时,比在混凝土操场上玩耍时,他们的多动症症状会得到更大的缓解. 注意这个有希望的简单方法来管理多动症. Even in cities, most families have access to parks 和 other natural settings. 和你的孩子们一起享受这个“绿色时光”吧——你也会得到应得的新鲜空气.

多动症和睡眠

Insufficient sleep can make anyone less attentive, 但这对患有多动症的儿童非常有害. 患有多动症的孩子需要的睡眠时间至少和他们不受影响的同龄人一样多, but tend 不 to get what they need. Their attention problems can lead to overstimulation 和 trouble falling asleep. 一个一致的, 早睡是解决这个问题最有效的方法, but it may 不 completely solve it.

Help your child get better rest by trying out one or more of the following strategies:

Decrease television time 和 increase your child’s activities 和 锻炼 levels during the day.

Eliminate caffeine from your child’s diet.

Create a buffer time to lower down the activity level for an hour or so before bedtime. 找一些更安静的活动,比如涂色、阅读或安静地玩耍.

Spend ten minutes cuddling with your child. This will build a sense of love 和 security as well as provide a time to calm down.

Use lavender or other aromas in your child’s room. The scent may help to calm your child.

Use relaxation tapes as background noise for your child when falling asleep. There are many varieties available including nature sounds 和 calming music. 患有多动症的孩子经常会发现“白噪音”可以让他们平静下来. You can create white noise by putting a radio on static or running an electric fan.

Tip 4: Set clear expectations 和 rules

儿童多动症 need consistent rules that they can underst和 和 follow. 让家庭的行为规则简单明了. Write down the rules 和 hang them up in a place where your child can easily read them.

患有注意力缺陷多动症的儿童对有组织的奖励和后果系统反应特别好. 重要的是要解释遵守规则和违反规则会发生什么. 最后,坚持你的系统:每一次都有奖励或结果.

As you establish these consistent structures, 记住,患有多动症的孩子经常会受到批评. Be on the lookout for good behavior—和 praise it. 对患有多动症的孩子来说,表扬尤其重要,因为他们通常很少得到表扬. These children receive correction, 修复, 还有对他们行为的抱怨——但很少有正面的强化.

一个微笑, 积极的评论, or other reward from you can improve the attention, 注意力集中和冲动控制. Do your best to focus on giving positive praise for appropriate behavior 和 task completion, 同时尽可能少地对不恰当的行为或糟糕的任务表现做出负面回应. Reward your child for small achievements that you might take for granted in a不her child.

Using 奖励 和 后果
奖励
  • Reward your child with privileges, praise, or activities, rather than with food or toys.
  • Change rewards frequently. 如果奖励总是一样,患有多动症的孩子就会感到无聊.
  • 做一个图表,用分数或星星来奖励良好的行为, 这样你的孩子就有了视觉上的成功提醒.
  • 即时奖励比未来奖励的承诺更有效, 但小的奖励也能带来大的奖励.
  • Always follow through with a reward.
后果
  • 后果应该提前说明,并在你的孩子表现不好后立即发生.
  • Try time-outs 和 the removal of privileges as consequences for misbehavior.
  • Remove your child from situations 和 environments that trigger inappropriate behavior.
  • 当你的孩子行为不端时,问问他或她本可以做些什么. Then have your child demonstrate it.
  • Always follow through with a consequence.

Tip 5: Help your child eat right

饮食并不是引起注意力缺陷障碍的直接原因, 但是食物可以而且确实会影响孩子的精神状态, which in turn seems to affect behavior. Monitoring 和 modifying what, when, 和 how much your child eats can help decrease the symptoms of 注意力缺陷多动症.

所有 children benefit from fresh foods, regular meal times, 和 staying away from junk food. 这些原则对患有多动症的儿童尤其适用, 谁的冲动和分心会导致错过吃饭, 饮食失调, 和暴饮暴食.

患有注意力缺陷多动症的儿童因饮食不规律而臭名昭著. Without parental guidance, these children might 不 eat for hours 和 then binge on whatever is around. The result of this pattern can be devastating to the child’s physical 和 emotional health.

防止不健康的饮食习惯,定期为你的孩子安排营养餐或零食,间隔不超过三个小时. 身体上的, a child with 注意力缺陷多动症 needs a regular intake of healthy food; mentally, 吃饭时间是一天中必要的休息时间和有规律的节奏.

  • Get rid of the junk foods in your home.
  • 外出就餐时,不要吃油腻和含糖的食物.
  • 关掉充斥着垃圾食品广告的电视节目.
  • 每天给孩子补充维生素和矿物质.

Tip 6: Teach your child how to make friends

儿童多动症 often have difficulty with simple social interactions. They may struggle with reading social cues, 说得太多, interrupt frequently, or come off as aggressive or “too intense.” Their relative emotional immaturity can make them st和 out among children their own age, 和 make them targets for unfriendly teasing.

不要忘记, 虽然, 许多患有注意力缺陷多动症的孩子都非常聪明和有创造力,最终会自己找到如何与他人相处的方法,并发现不适合做朋友的人. 此外, 可能会让家长和老师恼怒的性格特征,可能会给同龄人带来有趣和迷人的印象.

Helping a child with 注意力缺陷多动症 improve social skills

It’s hard for children with 注意力缺陷多动症 to learn social skills 和 social rules. 你可以帮助你患有多动症的孩子成为一个更好的倾听者, learn to read people’s faces 和 body language, 和 interact more smoothly in groups.

  • Speak gently but honestly with your child about their challenges 和 how to make changes.
  • 和孩子扮演不同的社交场景. Trade roles often 和 try to make it fun.
  • Be careful to select playmates for your child with similar language 和 physical skills.
  • Invite only one or two friends at a time at first. 在他们打球的时候,要仔细观察他们,对他们的殴打、推搡和叫喊要采取零容忍政策.
  • Make time 和 space for your child to play, 和 reward good play behaviors often.

Last updated: October 2021

得到更多的帮助

Parenting a Child with 注意力缺陷多动症 – Tips 和 strategies for parents. (儿童健康)资料

Parenting a Teen with 注意力缺陷多动症 – Tips 和 strategies. (Teens健康)

注意力缺陷多动症: Tips for Parents – Includes behavioral modification strategies. (Center for Parent Information & 参考资料)

Parenting a Child with 注意力缺陷多动症 (PDF) – Tips 和 resources. (National Resource Center on 注意力缺陷多动症)

Hotlines 和 support

在美国.S.: Talk with an 注意力缺陷多动症 Information Specialist at 1-, Monday-Friday, 1-5 pm ET, or search the Professional Directory for 注意力缺陷多动症 clinics 和 other resources. (请你的

UK:电话 YoungMinds Parents Helpline at 0 (Monday to Friday 9.30am – 4pm) or find resources for parents of children with 注意力缺陷多动症.

澳大利亚:电话 Parent helpline in your area 或者找一个列表 注意力缺陷多动症 澳大利亚 support groups.

加拿大:  找到一个 support group in your area. (CADDAC)

印度: 调用 V和revala Foundation Helpline  在1或1处