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A 哈佛大学 健康 article

How to Build an 锻炼 Plan

A Guide to Getting Started and Developing a Balanced Plan

一名身穿运动衫的年轻女子微笑着沿着土路跑着,胳膊上绑着手机音乐播放器

What type of exercise should you do?

没有一种单一的运动可以满足你所有的需求. 事实上, to get the most benefits from your routine, you want a mix of activities during the course of a week. 否则, 就像一种只包含有益健康的水果的饮食, 但是缺乏你能在其他食物中找到的很多营养, 如鱼, 蔬菜, 坚果, 和粗粮.

Developing a balanced exercise plan

So what does a balanced exercise plan consist of? The Physical Activity Guidelines for Americans from the U.S. 美国卫生与公众服务部敦促所有成年人在每周例行活动中进行以下几种锻炼:

  • 每周150分钟的适度有氧运动(例如,每五天30分钟)
    或75分钟的剧烈有氧运动(或两者的同等组合).
  • 每周进行两次或两次以上的力量训练,中间至少要有48小时的时间来锻炼肌肉
    恢复.
  • balance exercises for older adults at risk for falls.

如果这一切听起来让人喘不过气来,请记住,锻炼可以分成更小的部分. 例如,3次10分钟的步行可以让你达到每天30分钟有氧运动的目标.

每个锻炼还应该包括在开始时简单的热身和结束时的冷却. The warm-up should consist of gentle exercise, such as marching in place, 放松你的肌肉,让更多的富氧血液流向它们. 冷却, 将你的活动和强度放慢5到10分钟, then finish off with str等hes to help prevent stiffness.

继续阅读,更深入地了解平衡锻炼计划的每个组成部分,并建议混合活动和锻炼来让你继续.

Aerobic exercise (cardio)

Often called cardio or endurance activities, 有氧运动对于燃烧卡路里和减少多余的脂肪是很好的. 它们包括使心脏和肺工作更辛苦的活动:想想走路, 骑自行车, 运行, 和游泳, 例如.

有氧运动能暂时提高你的心率和呼吸, 让更多的氧气到达你的肌肉,提高心血管耐力. 这些活动可以降低许多疾病的风险,延长寿命.

How much should you do?

《金博体育官方》(Physical Activity Guidelines for Americans)建议每周至少进行两个半小时的适度有氧运动, or one hour and 15 minutes of vigorous aerobic activity. (Note: If you prefer a mix, 10分钟的剧烈运动相当于大约20分钟的中等强度运动.)将你的每周目标提高到5个小时的适度运动, or two-and-a-half hours of vigorous activity, nets additional health benefits, especially weight loss. Each session should last at least 10 minutes.

开始

步行对于任何年龄或健康水平的人来说通常是安全的,并且可以很容易地调整到一个舒适的速度. 它不会刺激关节或将你的心率提高到危险水平. For a greater challenge, 你可以添加时间, 距离, 或者爬山来提高耐力,或者在你走路的时候使用阻力带来调节.

Follow these tips to get the best workout from your walks:

Find a safe place to walk. Quiet streets with side- walks, 公园的小路, athletic tracks at local schools, or shopping malls are often good choices.

Buy a good pair of shoes. 寻找有支撑性但有弹性的鞋垫. Comfort is the key when buying shoes for walking. 在一天结束的时候,当你的脚处于最大尺寸的时候去购物. Choose shoes with “breathable” uppers, such as nylon mesh.

Dress for comfort and safety. Wear lighter clothes than you’d need if standing still. 多穿几层衣服,这样你热的时候就可以脱衣服了. 浅色衣服和反光背心会让司机注意到你.

Do a five-minute warm-up and cool-down. Start off at a slower pace for your warm-up. 走完后,放慢速度来凉快一下(即使你没有出汗).

Practice good technique:

  • Walk at a brisk, steady pace. 如果你喘不过气来无法继续谈话,那就放慢语速.
  • 站高.
  • 抬起你的头,这样你的下巴就在同一水平线上,看着你前面10到20英尺的地方.
  • 抬起你的胸部.
  • Keep your 肩膀 down.
  • Point your toes straight ahead.
  • Let your arms swing loosely at your sides. If you want to boost your speed, 肘部弯曲成90度角,双手从腰部到胸部高度摆动.
  • 用脚后跟着地,然后向前滚,用前脚掌支撑脚尖.
  • Take comfortable strides. To go faster, take quicker steps instead of longer ones.

Strength training

Strength or resistance training, which typically employs equipment such as weight machines, 自由重量器械, or resistance bands or tubing, protects against bone loss and builds muscle. 它还能提高你身体的肌肉和脂肪的比例. 它也应该在你的日常锻炼中占有重要的地位.

从技术上讲, 每当你的肌肉面对比平时更强的反作用力时,力量或阻力训练就会进行, such as pushing against a wall or lifting a dumbbell. 使用越来越重的重量或增加阻力会使肌肉更强壮. Aside from toning you, 力量训练为你提供日常活动所需的功能性力量,比如搬东西, 爬楼梯, rising from a chair, rushing for the bus—with ease.

How much should you do?

《金博体育官方》建议加强对所有主要肌肉群(腿部)的锻炼, 臀部, 回来, 胸部, 腹部, 肩膀, and arms) two or more times a week, with at least 48 hours between sessions. 根据一些研究,每次练习一组是有效的,不过两到三组可能更好. Repeat each exercise eight to 12 times (reps). 你的身体至少需要48小时的恢复和修复在力量训练期间,以建立更多的肌肉和变得更强.

开始

这些安全的力量训练技巧将帮助你从锻炼中获得最大的收获:

Focus on form, not weight. 在每次锻炼中,正确地调整身体,平稳地移动. Poor form can prompt injuries. Many experts suggest starting with no weight, or very light weight, when learning a strength training routine. 在分离肌肉群的同时,集中精力做缓慢、平稳的举举和均匀控制的下降动作. 你通过将身体保持在一个特定的位置,有意识地收缩和释放目标肌肉来隔离肌肉.

节奏,节奏. 节奏能帮助你保持控制,而不是削弱你的力量. 例如, count to four while lifting a dumbbell, 保持两个, 然后数到4,同时降低它到开始的位置.

呼吸. Blood pressure increases during a work- out, 但如果你在做力量练习时屏住呼吸,它会上升得更多. To avoid steep increases, exhale as you lift, push, or pull; inhale as you release. 为了确保你没有屏住呼吸,大声数出你的节奏. You can’t hold your breath when you’re talking.

Keep challenging muscles. The right weight differs depending on the exercise. 选择一种重量,在最后两组重复中使目标肌肉疲劳,同时还能保持良好的姿势. 如果你不能做到最少的重复次数,选择一个更轻的重量. When it feels too easy, as if you could continue doing reps, 再次通过增加体重来挑战你的肌肉(手臂大约1到2磅), 腿用2到5磅)或使用更强的阻力带. 交替, 你可以在你的锻炼中增加另一组动作(最多三组), or work out additional days per week. If you add weight, 记住,你应该能够以良好的姿势完成最少次数的练习, 目标肌肉在最后两组时应该感到疲劳.

Give muscles time off

像力量训练这样的剧烈运动会导致肌肉组织轻微撕裂. 这些眼泪是好事,而不是坏事:随着眼泪的愈合,肌肉变得更强壮. 每次锻炼至少要留出48小时让肌肉恢复. So, if you do a strenuous full-body strength workout on Monday, wait until at least Wednesday to repeat it. 在力量训练的间隙做有氧运动是可以的. If you’re doing a partial-body strength session, 然而, you might do upper-body exercises on Monday, lower-body exercises on Tuesday, upper-body exercises on Wednesday, lower-body exercises on Thursday, 等., and also do aerobic exercise on as many days as possible.

Balance exercises

Our sense of balance typically worsens as we age. 神经病变(糖尿病或某些化疗药物的并发症)等疾病可能会进一步损害它,导致刺痛, 疼痛, and numbness in the feet; side effects from other medications; uncorrected vision problems; or a lack of flexibility. Poor balance often leads to falls, 哪些会导致头部损伤以及暂时性或永久性的骨骼和神经系统损伤. 特别是髋部骨折,可导致严重的健康并发症,损害独立性.

有跌倒风险的老年人可以从步行中获益, strength training, and balance exercises. 增强平衡感的活动包括太极、瑜伽和普拉提. 力量训练锻炼腹部和背部的核心肌肉也有助于平衡.

How much should you do?

For older adults at risk for falls, 指南建议每周进行三次30分钟的平衡训练和肌肉强化训练, 再加上至少30分钟的步行活动,每周两次或更多.

Flexibility exercises

伸展运动和瑜伽等柔韧性运动可以温和地扭转肌肉的缩短和收紧,这些肌肉通常会随着年龄的增长而缩短和收紧. 更短的, 僵硬的肌肉纤维会使你容易受伤,导致背部疼痛和平衡问题.

经常进行隔离和拉伸肌肉和肌腱周围的弹性纤维的锻炼有助于抵消这种影响. 伸展得好的肌肉更容易达到它的全部运动范围. This improves athletic performance—imagine an easier, 高尔夫挥杆或网球发球和功能能力的限制较少, such as reaching, 弯曲, or stooping during daily tasks. 伸展运动也能让你在早晨动起来,或者在漫长的一天之后放松. 瑜伽之类的活动结合了伸展和放松,也能改善平衡, a wonderful combination.

然而,请注意,专家不再建议在运动前做伸展运动. 长时间的拉伸会妨碍肌肉的最大收缩力. 例如,跳跃前的拉伸会降低跳跃高度. 而不是, 专家们现在建议你从热身运动开始, 比如轻松的散步,或者特定的运动项目,比如在比赛前打网球和练习击球. 这增加了血液和氧气到肌肉的运动. 然后, when muscles are warm and pliable—例如, after five to 10 minutes of exercise—you can str等h. 或者,更好的是,在你锻炼后的冷却时间做你的柔韧性锻炼.

How much should you do?

《金博体育官方》并没有提出将柔韧性锻炼作为日常活动的一部分的具体建议. 然而, 美国运动医学学院建议老年人在有氧运动或力量运动的同一天进行柔韧性锻炼, or at least twice a week.

开始

当开始做伸展运动时,请遵循以下安全提示:

  • Check with your doctor. If you have joint disease or arthritis, or if you’ve had a joint replacement, 在开始伸展运动之前,请咨询你的医生.
  • 先暖身. Warm muscles are more flexible. 先做5到10分钟的热身运动,或者在运动后做一些伸展运动.
  • Str等h all muscle groups. 就像力量训练一样,拉伸应该包括所有的肌肉群.
  • 没有反弹. Never bounce as you str等h. 这会触发收缩反射,实际上会收紧你想要放松的肌肉.
  • Feel mild tension only. 伸展你的肌肉到你感到轻微紧张的地方,保持这个姿势. You should never feel 疼痛.
  • 呼吸. 呼吸 easily through your nose while str等hing.
  • 持有和重复. 最好的方法是坚持伸展10 - 30秒,每次伸展2 - 6次,持续1分钟.

Adapted with permission from Starting to 锻炼, a special health report published by 哈佛大学 健康 Publishing.